post Africa Straight Up

November 11th, 2012

Filed under: The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 12:14

Africa Straight Up - Official Film

With more than a billion people spread across 54 countries speaking more than 3,000 languages, Africa cannot — and should not — be limited to a single narrative. Africa Straight Up is a more complete story about Africa and its diaspora.

Share your personal story about Africa at or on Twitter @Africa_com with the hashtag #AfricaStraightUp.


Teresa Hillary Clarke


Jaime Puerta
Warren Adams

Jaime Puerta
Warren Adams

Jaime Puerta

Santho Mohapeloa

(in order of appearance)
Chimamanda Adichie
Moss Ngoasheng
Warren Adams
“Naija Friends”
David Kobia
Ory Okolloh
Erik Hersman
Juliana Rotich
Su Kahumbu
Patrick Awuah
Ken Okoth
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Eleni Gabre-Madhin
Aliko Dangote
Farayi Chipungu
Mo Ibrahim
Angelique Kidjo
Yasser Jradi,
Badiaa Bouhrizi,
Bendir Man,
Nawel Ben Kraiem,
Si Lemhaf
Armada Bizerta
George Ayittey
Tony Elumelu, MFR
Prime Minister Tony Blair
President Barack Obama
Herman Chinery-Hesse
Fred Swaniker
Acha Leke
Hakeem Belo-Osagie
Addis Alemayehou
Tonye Cole
Eric Kacou
Arthur Mutambara

Jackie C. Lin / JAJ Productions

Laura Joseph
Mel Okudo
Justina Hierta
Jayanthi Daniel
Daniel Sodkiewicz

Richard Muller

Mark Chipps
Gordon “Flash” Yu

Raghul Sridharan
Jaime Puerta
Elena Salas

Pablo Diez Casajuana

Lorenzo Spagli

George Rivera

Sony Music, South Africa
MTV Base, South Africa
Chocolate City Group, Nigeria
Twentieth Century Fox, USA
Bani Productions, Nigeria
Safaricom, Kenya
Ushahidi, Kenya
Voice of America, USA
Internet World Statistics, USA
Al Jazeera, Qatar
McNulty Prize, Aspen Institute, USA
Children of Kibera Foundation, Kenya
Student Sponsorship Programme, South Africa
Mo Ibrahim Foundation, London
Tony Elumelu Foundation, Nigeria
Poverty Cure, Acton Institute, USA
African Leadership Network, South Africa
Sahara Reporters, USA
The White House, USA

“Feel Good”
performed by
under license from Columbia
licensed courtesy of Sony Music Entertainment (Pty) Ltd

performed by Lira
under license from Columbia
licensed courtesy of Sony Music Entertainment (Pty) Ltd

“Rise Again”
performed by Lira
under license from Columbia
licensed courtesy of Sony Music Entertainment (Pty) Ltd

performed by M.I
licensed courtesy of Chocolate City Group

“Action Film”
performed by M.I
licensed courtesy of Chocolate City Group

“Enti Essout”
(”You are the Voice”)
performed by
Yasser Jradi, Badiaa Bouhrizi, Bendir Man, Nawel Ben Kraiem,
and Si Lemhaf and Armada Bizerta
[under creative commons license]

“I was wrong”
performed by Mikael Karlsson
licensed courtesy of Mikael Karlsson

South African Tourism
Sthu Zungu
Justin Barnette

White & Case
Adam Chernichaw
Stefan Mentzer

Afua Osei


post Nodding Disease

October 23rd, 2012

Filed under: Social Issues, The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 19:52

A mysterious disease is killing thousands of children in Uganda, Sudan and Tanzania.

The cause of the “nodding disease” is as yet unknown but it only affects children between the ages of five and 15.

Thought to be an epileptic neurological effect of the Onchocerca volvulus parasitic worm that causes Onchocerciasis or river blindness, victims suffer seizures that often start with nodding of the head, giving it its name.

Malcolm Webb reports from northern Uganda.

Source: Aljazeera


Nodding Disease baffles Experts.

Here in a hot, dusty part of northern Uganda, children are falling victim to a mysterious disease that has confounded health officials.

It’s known loosely as “nodding disease” and almost every family in the village we’ve come to see in Pader District has at least one child suffering from it.

Nine year old Vicky Ayaa began showing symptoms on the day we arrived.

The disease gets its name from its most noticeable symptom. The young girl appears to be nodding off. Her eyes begin to close and her head drifts downwards as if she’s falling asleep, yet she’s not tired and doesn’t want to lose focus.

Every few seconds her head jolts upwards and her startled gaze is upon us, then the eyelids become heavy and she fades again.

Over time, Vicky will likely get much worse, falling down and injuring herself, losing cognitive ability and experiencing stunted growth.

School often becomes too difficult for many children with nodding disease and they drop out. Indeed many of them die young.

They can fall into cooking fires when losing consciousness. Drown during a seizure. Die of opportunistic infections that strike the malnourished. Or they may simply be abandoned by their families.

“Within the communities some of the parents have thrown their children onto the streets,” says Dr. Emmanuel Tenywa, the World Health Organization’s team leader in the area. “They say they are tired. For how long will they be looking after these children? If you have seen these cases in their homes, you would cry when you look at them.”

When Vicky recovers from the nodding bout, she’s able to fetch water, but she must be watched closely.

Her mother weeps behind a nearby tree, distraught because she has only two children, and now, both of them have the condition.

William Oyet, a government health officer in the district, says this family’s case is typical. “It can start anywhere, and the whole people in the village are worried because any time, any day, your kid will start nodding.”

Experts from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta have been trying to find the cause of this condition. So far they’ve come up empty-handed.

Dr. Scott Dowell, from the CDC’s Division of Disease Detection & Emergency Response, led an investigation in the area. He says they’re not only baffled by the cause of the disease. They can’t determine why it only preys on children. “It really is very tightly clustered between five and 15 years of age,” he says. “In the study we did in northern Uganda 93% of kids were in that age window and I don’t know why that is.”

Throughout the village, some parents of the children are desperate.

As cruel as it seems, one mother keeps her son, David Okot, tied at the ankle with a rope so he can’t wander off.

David first showed symptoms of nodding disease in 2003. He’s 15 years old now, but looks much younger. He spends most of his days, angry and confused, tethered to a post on his family’s hut.

Since he became afflicted with the condition, David has developed a mental disability. He hasn’t spoken clearly for two years. Some villagers are frightened by him and consider him dangerous.

And these dangers, and fears, are in evidence almost everywhere you turn in the village.

William Oyet, the local health official, shows us two more children who appear to be about six or seven years old. “Monica is 13 years old and when you look she has stunted growth and cannot go to school, cannot do anything.”

The other child wears only a pair of faded shorts. His face and distended belly are covered in saliva. “He’s 11 years old,” says Oyet. “When you see the syndrome it has affected the growth. He cannot do much. The head, the saliva is all over the body and he’s really malnourished.”

Indeed many of the affected children are malnourished because eating food seems to spark bouts of nodding and sometimes seizures. Epilepsy drugs have been used to control the episodes, but they do not cure the condition, for which the key question is: what’s causing it?

“I wish we knew. It’s really frustrating,” says the CDC’s Dowell. “We know now from the most recent investigation that it is a brain disease. There’s clearly something wrong with the brains of these kids who have it. We’ve documented by MRI scans that the brains have some atrophy and by EEG that the brain waves are abnormal. In fact some of the kids with nodding have almost continuous seizure activity although they appear fairly normal.”

But the elusive question remains. “We understand the path of physiology of nodding but we still don’t know what causes it,” says Dowell.

The WHO’s Dr. Emmanuel Tenywa says there are other clues. For example, he says all the affected children have onchocerciasis, a parasitic condition that can cause blindness.

“I think that gives us a bit of a starting point,” says Tenywa. “But the whole issue is now if you are infected with onchocerciasis, how does it cross the brain barrier to go into the brain, and what damage does it exactly do? These are the things which we are trying to understand.”

But onchocerciasis is common in many African countries, so why doesn’t nodding disease appear elsewhere? So far it’s only been found in small pockets of northern Uganda, Sudan and Tanzania, but the number of cases is growing. That’s raising fears that it could spread to more areas, sparking a greater sense of urgency in the health community.

But for the people in this village in northern Uganda, the sense of urgency couldn’t be any greater. To them it’s not a medical mystery. It’s a blight that’s picking off their children, one by one.


post Listros

September 15th, 2010

Filed under: The Unspoken — Admassu @ 11:10

The Art of Survival

It was in the year 2003 that I met Dawit Shanko in Hamburg. Dawit, an architect who lived in Berlin. Dawit was in Hamburg presenting his newly established project “Listros” (Shoeshine boys).

He told me that as he was a small boy, he also has tried to finance his school utensils through shoe-shining. Because of this crucial and unforgettable life experience, Dawit has taken it as his priority task to make the world understand the hardship behind being a listro in Addis Abeba and in other towns of Ethiopia.

Music and multimedia by Admassu M.K.

The most important part of the project was to let the listro boys tell their own stories themselves. It was not an easy task to implement this idea. Since the most valuable possessions this kids have are their shoeshine boxes, an external support to provide them with an appropriate medium to help them express their situation was necessary.

Dawit was conscious about the huge expense that would be needed to start with. He was fortunate enough to organize the first step. This first step was to collect a number of compact photo cameras. After managing to buy as many cameras as possible, Dawit flew to Ethiopia. In Debre Zeit (a town 41 km south of Addis), Dawit gave those cameras to the listros of the town as gift. In return, the listro boys have agreed to take pictures of each other and give Dawit the negatives.

Things went quite well and as planned. The most surprising part of this procedure was the quality of the photographs taken by the listros. The pictures were brilliant and unexpectedly poetic. After coming back from Ethiopia and developing the photos, Dawit had a great motivation and a strong basis to proceed with the project to the next step.

Today, Listros project is a strong association. Many known German, Ethiopian and International artists present their creation under the title of “Listros”. The association organizes art exhibitions, discussion forums and workshops around the topic that deals with the conditions of shoeshine boys and street kids of Ethiopia. Those photographs by the listro boys are very famous and are still the most valuable emblem of the association.

The multimedia presentation from above was my contribution to the project. All pictures in this presentation were taken by the creative listro kids from Debre Zeit.

Please visit the Listros site to inform yourself more about the project or to take part.

Listros: A Dream in a Box (

post Women and HIV/AIDS

August 19th, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 22:18

Nearly 60% of HIV+ individuals in Ethiopia are women. Gender bias and the biology of transmission make women more vulnerable to infection. Poverty, lack of access to education, and violence against women increase their risk. This film profiles the connection between gender and HIV/AIDS, as well as the work of leaders in education and policy change to improve the status of women.

Director: Dorothy Fadiman
Producer: Dorothy Fadiman, Amy Hill
Production Company: Concentric Media

post Breaking the Silence

August 19th, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 21:53

Despite the risk of social stigma, an increasing number of HIV+ people are speaking out. Some are becoming active in their communities, working to reduce discrimination and secure better services. This film details their stories and profiles groups that provide counseling, income support, and prevention education.

Director: Dorothy Fadiman
Producer: Dorothy Fadiman, Amy Hill
Production Company: Concentric Media


post Abebe Asfaw’s Message

August 3rd, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Admassu @ 21:32

Imama Ethiopia
A poem by Abebe Asfaw

They say that he was once the richest man of the town. I still remember, as I was a small kid,  I used to accompany my father once in a while to the biggest hotel of Yirga Cheffe. It was owned by Ato Abebe Asfaw. My father and Ato Abebe were very good friends. Whenever we went there on Kiremt vacations from Addis, Abebe Asfaw’s hotel was the only establishment where my father used to spend his free time. I also have enjoyed going there with my father because I was usually allowed to drink as many Mirindas as I could free of charge.

Music & video: Admassu M. K.

Today, the reality around Ato Abebe is completely different. He is now an old man. Most of his friends, including my father, are no more alive. His hotel is still one of the best addresses in the town but it is no more owned by him. They say that Abebe Asfaw is now poor because his dreams and ideas were always beyond the reality of his surrounding: a very risky  behavior for a businessman in those days.

Well, I don’t really know the true reason of his dramatic lose. I do know for sure that he is still a dreamer with a great respect for the nature. When ever I went home for a visit, Ato Abebe takes time to visit me. Usually he rewinds his memories to the wonderful time and friendship he had with my father. Sometimes, we are forced to postpone the storytelling session to the next day. I usually had this particular feeling that he was trying to escape from his current life situation by telling me as many stories as he could from his long-gone golden era.

But, above all, the central point of Ato Abebe’s concern was (still is) the deforestation around his hometown Yirga Cheffe and in the whole country. He has of course no financial possibility to help conserving the nature. His only weapon against this serious matter is the poetry.

Lissan Magazine is proudly presenting one of his poems as a video message.

post Street Children

June 9th, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 23:42

Children living on the rough streets of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia’s capitol, describe their days and nights of struggle. To better understand the mentality that keeps the children from seeking help, we speak with Dr. Minas Hiruy, the director of a local charity organization. He believes that, given a chance, the children can one day succeed.


post False Prejudices

April 28th, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Admassu @ 00:09

I was fighting with my conscience to avoid my stereotype conclusions and degrading judgments whenever I saw him lying beside the road exhausted and exposing his alcohol tormented poor body to the midday sun. Wondering how he had succeeded to get drunk so early, I used to walk by without paying attention to the very fact of his being a human being.


That first time I saw him half sober and in a vertical position was the day he came looking for me. Actually he was not looking for me, I was just the last chance to borrow some coins for his daily ration of alcohol. Seeing him coming towards us, I have told my brother that it was my first time seeing this guy walking.

My brother told me that Demisse was once a decorated soldier as Mengistu Hailemariam was ruling our country, and that he was kind of a hero in his regiment. Hearing his name being mentioned for the first time put me in a certain eagerness to know more and I asked my brother…

“What happened that he ended up like this?”

“You better ask himself…. I think he is looking for you.”

“Why me?”

“Well, you are new and he knows I wouldn’t give him a cent.”

Demisse was near us by then. He didn’t greet us because he was too busy positioning himself in a suitable position to face and confront us. It must have taken him all his strength and self-persuasion to come here. He was just looking at both of us smiling, lost and defenseless. Looking at him that way I couldn’t imagine that he was once a soldier, a hero in his regiment.


“What is it Demisse? Why are you here? Didn’t I tell you that I won’t give you any money again?” My brother said.

Demisse smiled shyly, almost like a small kid. His way of responding to my brother’s unfriendly question was so disarming that we couldn’t help laughing. Demisse, accompanying us in our laughter, has some difficulties to keep his balance and he staggered a bit till he found his previous standing position. We saw that he has his first portion of alcohol already.

After standing there smiling and staring at each other for a while, I couldn’t help asking him if he was once a soldier.

He didn’t answer me for about 30 seconds. Instead he looked at my brother in a funny way as if he was blaming him for telling me about his background. Then he said…


“Yes, but no more questions about that please.”

“Why?!” I said. Now I am really eager to know more.

“Why, why, why… why should I tell you why?” He was smiling while he was saying that but his words sounded quite serious.

I was a bit off balance and visibly irritated by his answer. “So why are you here?”

“It is a free country.”

“Don’t be silly Demisse, just tell him why you are here. You need money for your drink and he is not going to give it to you unless you tell him your story.” my brother said.


Demisse looked at both of us for a while evaluating my brother’s offer. He was in a kind of agony. Seeing him suffering to make a decision, I told him not to bother about it. I took out my wallet and gave him 10 Birr excusing my self for pushing him that far. He didn’t believe his eyes and was reluctant to take the money. My brother was also a bit surprised but didn’t say anything. 10 Birr is less than the amount of an Euro and it wasn’t a big deal. But it must have been a big deal in those locals where Demisse usually went to drink. That must be the reason that made him come back after we have thought that he was already gone.

He was still holding the 10 Birr in his hand as he came back as if he didn’t trust his pockets.

Looking directly in to my brother’s eyes he said….

“You have a good brother….” then he turned his face in my direction but still addressing his words to my brother “….I saw your brother few times passing me by while I was lying there drunk. You know, I thought he was just like you and the others here…. you think you are better because you see me this way….” he opened his closed palm to reveal the money I gave him and, still looking at me, he continued talking addressing his words to my brother “….but your brother is different, he gave me so much money because he understands me.”

I was now a bit self conscious and wished he wouldn’t look at me that way and say those untrue words about my being a good and understanding person. I am the one who didn’t recognize him as a human being till I saw him walking towards us on that day. I was the one who passed a degrading judgment on him till I heard that he was a soldier. The only reason why I wanted to hear his story wasn’t because I was interested in his personality, I just wanted to satisfy my own selfish eagerness.

Demisse looked at me and said…

“Do you really want to know why I am drinking?”

“Yes.” I said.


“If you tell me, I would like to hear.”

After a brief silence, he continued…


“She wasn’t older than 21. A beautiful girl with a Kalashnikov… a gorilla fighter of the enemy. My bullet hit her through her chest and I saw her sliding down to a sitting position. Her fighter friends left her there and retreated because we had more soldiers from behind. I think she was already dead, but she was sitting against a tree with her weapon still in her hand, we fired some more shots at her. Then I went to where she was while the others were waiting in their ambush. While checking for her ids I saw that she was a young girl. Her big eyes were still open and they were directly looking at me….”

Demisse walked away silently without saying goodbye. I wished I hadn’t said “yes” as he asked me if I really want to know why he was drinking.

post The Fistula Project

March 27th, 2008

Filed under: The Unspoken — Lissan Magazine @ 16:19


The Fistula Project is determined to raise funds and awareness for the hardships that the women of Ethiopia endure on a day-to-day basis. This project is primarily concerned with the victims of fistula, a child-birth injury usually found in developing countries. As every minute goes by, a woman in this world suffers from a child-birth injury that could have easily been prevented through awareness about midwifery and labor care as well as through the supply of medical doctors. In Ethiopia, the ratio of medical doctors to civilians is very high; hence, not everyone receives the proper medical care in a timely manner. Through this scarcity, it is easy for a rural woman to deliver a still-born child and damage her bladder/vaginal tissue. The Fistula Project aims to not only raise funds to cure the victims of fistula but it also plans to help raise awareness in Ethiopia about fistula prevention and in the United States about fistula and how to assist its victims. The Ethiopian American Youth Initiative will partner with the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia and the Fistula Foundation in the United States for The Fistula Project.

A single mom seeking help in southern Ethiopia
photo source:

Imagine a little girl of the unfortunate women in the world that get into obstructive labor. She doesn’t know when she starts her labor, no do the village women know. They tell her to push every day. After four days of pushing she delivers a dead baby. The only reason why she can deliver it is because the baby inside the mother gets smaller hen it’s dead. But she wakes up to a worse horror: finding her bed soaked in feces and body fluid. All the pushing has created that hole so everything is coming out uncontrollably. The young women are often shunned by their husbands, and sent back home to their parents. The women are then shunned by their families and communities because of the foul odor and the ignorance of the child-birth injury as some might perceive it as a contagious illness or the workings of the “devil.” The father orders a shed to be built for the isolated girl. There she will stay forever, until death. She’s ruined, a beautiful young girl, no hope whatsoever.

Fistulas are holes that develop in the tissue that separates the vagina from the bladder and rectum. It occurs in expectant mothers who have difficulty during labor because of small pelvises or a poorly positioned fetus. In the USA this problem is prevented by the Caesarian Section (C Section) surgery alternative to a natural birth. However, in developing countries, medical doctors are nowhere to be found; hence the women tend to lead a life without proper medical care one might find in the USA. Fistula is a preventable child-birth injury, through the C Section, however it can also be cured. Through a simple surgery, which was refined by Doctors Catherine and Reginald Hamlin, the dead tissue is taken out and new tissue from other parts of the body replaces the dead tissue.


In the 1950s, Catherine and Reginald Hamlin, two Australian Medical Doctors, wanted to leave Australia in order to assist women in unfortunate situations. Their desire was fulfilled when they were called upon to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Hamlins were shocked, having entered a country with almost no resources for pregnant women. They opened a small midwifery school at the Princess Tsehaye Memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa. While teaching at the school, a colleague introduced Catherine and Reginald to obstetric fistula and its impacts on the lives of rural women in Ethiopia. Once learning about fistula and the devastating impacts, the Hamlins began to plan the blueprints for a hospital.

After support from folks abroad in Europe and Australia as well as concern from the Ethiopian Government, the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital was officially commenced in 1974. The Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital is the only hospital in the world dedicated to exclusively treating fistula patients. Now, 34 years later, the hospital has expanded under the name The Hamlin Fistula Hospitals and aside from the flagship Addis Ababa hospital, five hospitals are being constructed in Mekelle, Bahar Dar, Harrar, Yirgalem and Metu to accommodate women in the rural lands who usually make an enduring trip to Addis Ababa. As of early 2008, the Mekelle, Yirgalem and Bahar Dar fistula hospitals have opened. The Hamlin Fistula Hospitals have cured over 28,000 women since 1974 and now have become an oasis of education and help. An abundance of Ethiopian and foreign medical doctors travel to the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital for training in the refined fistula repair surgery which was pioneered by the Hamlins. Today, the Government of Ethiopia is providing much needed support for the hospital. Aside from paying the salaries of all doctors and some medical staff at the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals, the hospital was also given a land grant to build “Desta Mender” (“Village of Joy” in Amharic) as a long-term care facility located outside of Addis Ababa. The Hamlin Fistula Hospitals are also given international support from 7 foundations all over the world which exclusively raise funds for the hospitals, of which in the United States is EAYI partner: The Fistula Foundation.

In 1993 Dr. Reginald Hamlin passed away but to this day Dr. Catherine Hamlin, in her 80s now, still performs the surgeries and can rest assure that an excellent medical team led by Medical Director Dr. Mulu Muleta and administrative team led by CEO Mark Bennet will take charge for the many years to come. Perhaps the most amazing and most important aspect of the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals is that no woman is turned down for fistula repair surgery and no woman pays one cent for her surgery. This is made possible from assistance from the 7 international foundations which support the hospitals as well as a variety of other governmental and inter-governmental organizations.

You can help by donating to The Fistula Project, a permanent project of the Ethiopian American Youth Initiative dedicated to raising funds for the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals. It is $450 US Dollars for the fistula repair package which consists of surgery, rehabilitation, a new dress as well as transportation back to the woman’s home. Practically, for $450 you are giving new life to a woman; you are turning a woman from despair to dignity. For The Fistula Project there are two ways to donate money, either to sponsor a woman for $450 US Dollars or to make a kind donation or gift. EAYI also encourages you to spread the word about the Hamlin Fistula Hospitals and to promote awareness about the rights of women in developing nations and about fistula.

For more information, email
To donate, email
For general inquiries, email

post Speaking about the Unspoken

October 14th, 2007

Filed under: The Unspoken — Admassu @ 19:02

The conceived pictures of the controversial reality are glued to my memory. A year ago while I was taking a walk with my nephew in Addis near the city quarter Gerji. Aliike the usual building activities in Addis, Gerji is also full of this land breaking construction fever. The once remote and barely populated Gerji is crowded with newly built apartments. There were too many new apartments piled uncoordinated like huge containers in a chaotic harbor. Construction trucks loaded with sand and soil drove through the streets continuously leaving huge clouds of dust in to the emission suffocated thick air. Seeing that I was uncomfortable, my nephew suggested another less populated and less chaotic route to continue our walk.

///The wall (photo: admassu)///

Amidst the near by turbulence I came to encounter an amazing image with an astonishing contrast to the previous one.

///The enterance (photo: admassu)///

There on our route was this self made construction of a dwelling which was entirely built by garbage, remnants of plastics and stones. That was not the very first time I saw this kind of roadside dwelling in Addis. It is just the weird comparison of the circumstances that hit my mind.

///The roof (photo: admassu)///

The dwelling was empty which gave me a room to imagine about those who built it. To the vivid surprise of my nephew, I started to inspect the construction.

///The door (photo: admassu)///

Each material that was put together to erect the dwelling structure was full with signs of hard will, hard work and undying hope for a better future. Through this scenery I learned too see the unused potential that these fellow lands men and women have.

///The compound (photo: admassu)///

Being poor in a country like ours is not a sign for the lack of potential but a sign for so many closed doors to realize it.

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